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Visual meteorological conditions

Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) – take-off, en route, and landing AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – controlled airspace – Class C

Type of aircraftHeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional  conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloonsAt or above  10 000 ft AMSL8 km1500 m horizontal 1000 ft vertical
Below 10 000 ft AMSL5000 m1500 m horizontal 1000 ft verticalATC may permit operations in weather conditions that do not meet this criteria (special VFR)

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – controlled airspace – Class D

Type of aircraftHeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional  conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloonsWithin Class D5000 m600 m horizontal, 1000 ft vertically above cloud; or 500 ft vertically below cloudATC may permit operations in weather conditions that do not meet this criteria (special VFR)

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – controlled airspace – Class E

Type of aircraftHeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional  conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloonsAt or above  10,000 ft AMSL8 km1500 m horizontal 1000 ft vertical
Below 10,000 ft AMSL5000 m1500 m horizontal 1000 ft vertical

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – non-controlled airspace – Class G

HeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloons[key]
1At or above  10,000 ft AMSL8 km1000 ft vertical 1500 m horizontal
2Below 10,000 ft AMSL  (subject to Items  3 and 4 on page 3.12)5000 m1000 ft vertical 1500 m horizontal

HeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloons continued[key]
3At or below (whichever is the higher) of:
(a) 3000 ft AMSL;
(b) 1000 ft AGL
5000 mClear of cloud and in sight of ground or waterRadio must be carried and used on the appropriate frequency
Balloons[key]
4Below 1500 ft above ground or water5000 mClear of cloudNo vertical clearance from cloud below the balloon is required provided:
(a) the top of the cloud is at or below 500 ft above ground or water; and
(b) the balloon is at least 10 nm from an aerodrome with an approved instrument approach procedure
Below 500 ft
above ground
or water
100 mNot applicableDay operation only and the balloon is at least 10 nm from an aerodrome with an
approved instrument approach procedure

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

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