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Visual meteorological conditions

Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) – take-off, en route, and landing AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – controlled airspace – Class C

Type of aircraftHeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional  conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloonsAt or above  10 000 ft AMSL8 km1500 m horizontal 1000 ft vertical
Below 10 000 ft AMSL5000 m1500 m horizontal 1000 ft verticalATC may permit operations in weather conditions that do not meet this criteria (special VFR)

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – controlled airspace – Class D

Type of aircraftHeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional  conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloonsWithin Class D5000 m600 m horizontal, 1000 ft vertically above cloud; or 500 ft vertically below cloudATC may permit operations in weather conditions that do not meet this criteria (special VFR)

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – controlled airspace – Class E

Type of aircraftHeightFlight VISDistance from cloudAdditional  conditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloonsAt or above  10,000 ft AMSL8 km1500 m horizontal 1000 ft vertical
Below 10,000 ft AMSL5000 m1500 m horizontal 1000 ft vertical

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

VMC – non-controlled airspace – Class G

Height at which applicableApplicable distance for flight visibilityApplicable distances for cloud visibilityConditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloons[key]
1At or above  10,000 ft AMSL8 km1000 ft vertical 1500 m horizontal
2Below 10,000 ft AMSL  (subject to Items  3 and 4 on page 3.12)5000 m1000 ft vertical 1500 m horizontal

Height at which applicableApplicable distance for flight visibilityApplicable distances for cloud visibilityConditions
Aeroplanes, helicopters and balloons continued[key]
3At or below (whichever is the higher) of:
(a) 3000 ft AMSL;
(b) 1000 ft AGL(subject to item 4 below)
5000 mClear of cloud and in sight of ground or waterRadio must be carried and used on the appropriate frequency
Balloons[key]
4Below 1500 ft above ground or water5000 mClear of cloudNo vertical clearance from cloud below the balloon is required provided:
(a) the top of the cloud is at or below 500 ft above ground or water; and
(b) the balloon is at least 10 nm from an aerodrome with an approved instrument approach procedure

Source: AIP ENR 1.2

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