Landing – provision of operational information AIP ENR 1.1
ATC will supply the following information for landing operations:
- runway or direction
- wind direction and speed, QNH and, if required, temperature and/or dew point
- known significant weather information, including low cloud and visibility or RVR
- a time check (to the nearest half minute), whenever a time to commence final is specified by ATC
- the crosswind component on the runway to be used, if this equals or exceeds 8 kt for single-engined aircraft or 12 kt for multi-engined aircraft
- the tailwind component
- aerodrome surface conditions significant to the operation, including maintenance work within 23 m of the runway side strip marking
- birds and other hazards to aircraft and
- cautionary advice of wake turbulence.
Selection of landing direction
The pilot in command must ensure that the nominated runway or direction is operationally suitable. If the nominated runway or direction is not suitable, ATC must be advised using the phrase ‘Require runway (number)’. Such a request will not result in of loss of priority provided that it is made:
- before reaching 80 nm (120 nm for jets) from a capital city aerodrome (including Essendon) or 30 nm from other controlled aerodromes, for arriving aircraft wholly within controlled airspace, or
- on first contact with ATC for arriving aircraft entering controlled airspace within the distance specified above or a control area step or a control zone.
The decision to land rests solely with the pilot in command.
For ab initio flying training it is recommended that the TODA / LDA is at least 120% of the distances required by the aircraft flight manual or performance chart, or certificate of airworthiness and the take off or approach slope is 3.3% or less from the runway end to a distance of 1600 m.
Selection of circuit direction
A pilot in command must notify ATC if a particular turn or circuit is essential to the safe operation of the aircraft. The word ‘require’ must be used to enable ATC to identify the safety requirement.
Unless otherwise instructed by ATC, the pilot of an arriving or circuit training aircraft must report ‘downwind’ when starting or entering the downwind leg of the traffic circuit. If frequency congestion prevents the call being made when starting the downwind leg, the pilot must report ‘mid-downwind’ or ‘late-downwind’ as appropriate.
A pilot in command must not land unless they receive specific clearance ‘Cleared to land’.
Separation minima for landing
The appropriate wake turbulence separation standard will be applied by ATC between landing aircraft, except when a pilot has reported a preceding aircraft in sight and has been assigned responsibility to maintain separation with that aircraft.
A landing aircraft will not be permitted to cross the threshold of the runway on its final approach until:
- a preceding departing aircraft using the same runway:
- is airborne and
- has commenced a turn; or
- is beyond the point on the runway at which the landing aircraft could be expected to complete its landing roll and there is sufficient distance to manoeuvre safely in the event of a missed approach;
- is at least 1,000 m from the runway threshold, and
- has commenced the take-off run, and
- in the opinion of the controller, no collision risk exists, and
- the aircraft taking off has a MTOW of 7,000 kg or less, and
- the landing aircraft is performance Category A and has a MTOW below 3,000 kg.
- is airborne and
- a preceding landing aircraft using the same runway:
- has vacated it and is taxiing away from the runway; or
- has landed and has passed a point at least 1,000 m from the threshold of the runway and will vacate the runway without backtracking, and
- in the opinion of the tower controller, no collision risk exists, and
- the preceding landing aircraft has a MTOW of 7,000 kg or less, and
- the following landing aircraft is performance Category A and has a MTOW below 3,000 kg; or
- has landed and has passed a point at least 600 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without backtracking; and
- the preceding landing aircraft has a MTOW of less than 7,000 kg, and
- the following landing aircraft has a MTOW of 2,000 kg or less, or
- in the case where the following landing aircraft is a helicopter, the preceding landing aircraft is at least 300 m down the runway from the threshold and ATC is satisfied that no collision risk exists.
- a preceding aircraft, using a different runway, has crossed or stopped short for the landing aircraft’s runway.
In the above situations, a landing clearance may be issued if ATC expect that the required runway separation standard will exist.
Exceptions to separation minima are:
- aircraft landing in formation with respect to each other; and
- aircraft operating in different areas or lanes on aerodromes with runways or facilities suitable for simultaneous landings.
Separation minima for landing
Go around procedure in VMC
Except as specified in ERSA for specific aerodromes if an aircraft is required to go around from a visual approach in VMC, the aircraft must initially climb on the runway track, remain visual and await ATC instructions. If the aircraft cannot clear obstacles on runway track, the aircraft may turn.
At Class D aerodromes with parallel runways where contra-rotating circuit operations
are in progress, if ATC instructs, or a pilot initiates a go-around, the pilot must:
- commence climb to circuit altitude
- position the aircraft on the active side and parallel to the nominated duty runway, while maintaining separation from other aircraft
- follow ATC instructions or re-enter the circuit from upwind.
Taxiing after landing
A pilot in command must not hold on the runway in use unless ATC has so authorised.
After landing, unless specified otherwise by ATC, an aircraft must comply with the following requirements:
- promptly vacate the runway without backtracking
- change from the aerodrome frequency to the SMC frequency (where established) when vacating the runway strip and obtain an ATC taxi instruction
- not cross any runway that intersects the taxi route unless in receipt of a taxi instruction and a ‘Cross runway (number)’ instruction from ATC
- taxi to the destination via the most direct taxiway(s) available and
- where an apron service is provided on a discrete frequency (see ERSA), change to that frequency on entering the apron.
A taxi instruction which contains a taxi limit beyond a runway must include a ‘Cross runway (number)’ instruction to cross that runway. When an aircraft is required to hold short of a runway intersecting the taxi route, ATC will issue a taxi instruction limit of the holding point associated with the intersecting runway.
An aircraft which has been issued with a taxi instruction limit of the holding point of a runway intersecting the taxi route, or which has been issued with an instruction to ‘Hold short’ of that runway, must subsequently be issued with an instruction to ‘Cross runway (number)’.
Aircraft required to hold short of a runway must hold at the appropriate holding point for that runway, or the runway strip edge at the intersection of a crossing runway.
When separate frequencies for aerodrome control and surface movement control are in use, the pilot in command, on landing, must change from the aerodrome control frequency to the SMC frequency on vacating the runway strip, and then transmit the aircraft callsign and, if applicable, parking bay number. A pilot in command may ‘Request detailed taxi instructions to (location)’.
The taxi clearance regulates movement on the manoeuvring area.
The separation of aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area is a joint pilot and controller responsibility. Taxi clearance shall contain concise instructions and adequate information so as to assist flight crew to follow the correct taxi routes, to avoid collision with other aircraft and objects and to minimise the potential for the aircraft inadvertently entering a runway.
A taxi clearance will not relate to movement on the apron areas. However, available essential information referring to other aircraft entering or leaving the same apron area will be provided.
Radio watch must be maintained on the SMC or tower frequency (where no SMC frequency is provided) until parked.